Thursday, September 19, 2019
Attention Deficit Disorder Attention Deficit Disorder is a neurobehavioral disorder that affects thousands of people in the United States. Over the past decade, media focuses have been primarily on children with the disorder and the effects of the traditionally used medication, Ritalin. It is important to note that A.D.D. does not target only children, but it also greatly affects adults because it is not a condition than can be outgrown or cured. Furthermore, it has become critical, since more doctors have become specialists on this disorder, thus presenting the many ways in which it affects the life of a human being. The identification of Attention Deficit Disorder dates to the early 1900's when it was called "minimal brain dysfunction"; researchers found that children with encephalitis and soldiers who had received some brain damage (after World War I), demonstrated hyperactivity, impulsivity, and conduct disorders. (1) Consequently, researchers made the assumption that since brain injury could cause hyperac tivity then all hyperactivity would be caused by brain damage. After many years of new observations, this statement has been shown to be untrue; however, there are still many misconceptions and rumors about the causes of A.D.D., which limit the general understanding of the disorder. The topic of A.D.D. is of great interest to me since two of my siblings have been diagnosed with the disorder. This first assignment has given me the opportunity to explore the causes and the many faces of A.D.D. I found myself to be one of many people who believed many rumors and misconceptions to be true about A.D.D. as well as learning about the newest most commonly accepted observations and conclusions about the causes of this disorder. For example, A.D.D. does not occur in one form only; in fact, there are two major types of A.D.D.: Inattentive: In general, people with this type have trouble keeping focus and attention and are not consistent with hyperactivity. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Often failure in paying close attention to details/making mistakes in assignments Ã¢â¬ ¢ Difficulty in retaining attention in tasks Ã¢â¬ ¢ Seems not to listen/forgets daily activities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Failure to follow instructions or finishing assignments Ã¢â¬ ¢ Constantly loosing belongings Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: In general, people with this type are in constant overactivity and are highly impulsive, which leads to the inability to remain focused and attentive. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Fidgety and squirmy/ not being able to stay seated Ã¢â¬ ¢ Feeling restless Ã¢â¬ ¢ Often "on the go" or acts if "driven by a motor" Ã¢â¬ ¢ Often talking excessively
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
DoublespeakÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Doublespeak, whether intentional or unintentional is communication that is obscure, pompous, vague, evasive and confusing.() In most instances, doublespeak tries to achieve a particular objective as is the case in President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s address to the nation on September 11, after the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington. The objective of this speech is clearly to mollify the emotions of a frightened nation and at the same time set the tone for what is to come as a result of the attacks. In this speech one can find many examples of doublespeak. These examples seem to be intentional although they defy typical doublespeak in that the doublespeak is not intended for any personal gains and is not concealed with a lot of convoluted language. If one can understand some of the basic principles about making sense of media-speak then the domino effect of this type of speech can be reduced. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One of the first statements President Bush makes in his speech can be classified as doublespeak. When he sayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Our way of life, our very freedom came under attack,Ã¢â¬ he is indirectly saying that everything Americans are accustomed to and enjoy is at stake. With these simple words and the tone chosen to deliver them President Bush is strategically taking the emotions of the American people for a ride while making it clear that the American people are his target audience. An important principle for properly deciphering this instance of doublespeak is to unload first responses and get them out in the open so the rest of the message can be received clearly and unobstructed by inner thoughts. Other examples of doublespeak that fit into the same category as the previous one are when President Bush uses the phrases, Ã¢â¬Å"Foundation of AmericaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Steel of American Resolve.Ã¢â¬ Both of these examples attempt to evoke an emotional resp onse although, the emotions attempting to be extracted are different from those in the beginning of the speech. They differ because they set the tone for new offensive and secure feelings opposed to the original feelings of defense and endangerment. This example also illustrates how obscure doublespeak can be. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã President Bush regards the attacks as despicable and evil acts. The word evil is the doublespeak in this example. The way he uses this word automati... ...nbsp;Ã Ã Ã G-d is stronger than any human on earth. Walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evilÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Not fearing the terrorists because of such a tragedy in close proximity. Every walk of lifeÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã All races, genders, and cultures. Resolve for justice and peaceÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã We are going to war. Eliminating Mediaspeak: Is it Clear Now? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Doublespeak is deceptive as are most of the examples mentioned from this speech. On the contrary, doublespeak as explored through this example is sometimes a necessary tool to address an issue in a manner that is politically correct. When the doublespeak present in this speech is eliminated the underlying themes are not entirely lost and the speech is still effective. I think given the circumstances the audience was pleased with the underlying messages delivered and probably expected them making it easier to decipher President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s jargon. The speech could have been delivered without doublespeak and more directly, but the perception of the audience would likely remain the same. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Computer Software Piracy and it's Impact on the International Economy The PC industry is over twenty years old. In those twenty years, evolving software technology brings us faster, more sophisticated, versatile and easy-to-use products. Business software allows companies to save time, effort and money. Educational computer programs teach basic skills and complicated subjects. Home software now includes a wide variety of programs that enhance the users productivity and creativity. The industry is thriving and users stand to benefit along with the publishers. The SPA (Software Publishers Association) reports that the problem of software theft has grown, and threatens to prevent the development of new software products. Unauthorized duplication of software is known as software piracy which is a "Federal offense that affects everyoneÃ¢â¬ ("Software Use..." Internet). The following research examines software piracy in its various forms, its impact on the end user and the international industry as a whole, and the progress that has been made in alleviating the problem. Software piracy harms all software companies and ultimately, the end user. Piracy results in higher prices for honest users, reduced levels of support and delays in funding and development of new products, causing the overall breadth and quality of software to sufferÃ¢â¬ ("What is...Ã¢â¬ Internet). Even the users of unlawful copies suffer from their own illegal actions: they receive no documentation, no customer support and no information about product updates ("Software Use..." Internet). The White Paper says that while virtually every software publisher expresses concern about their software from unauthorized duplication, over time, many have simply accepted the so-called "fact" that such duplication is unavoidable. This has created an atmosphere in which software piracy is commonly accepted as "just another cost of doing business" ("With the Growth..." Internet). In a brochure published by the SPA it is stated that a major problem arises from the fact that most people do not even know they are breaking the law. "Because the software industry is relatively new, and because copying software is so easy, many people are either unaware of the laws governing software use or choose to ignore them" ("To Copy or not to Copy" Internet). Robert Perry states that much of the problem of software theft arises from the way the software industry developed. In the past, when a software firm spent millions of dollars to write a program for a mainframe computer, it knew it would sell a handful of copies. It licensed each copy to protect its ownership rights and control the use of each copy. That is easy to do with only a few copies of a program. It is impossible for a software company to handle
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Success of Michael Crichton's Novels in the Media Industry Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã One only has to look at the astonishing opening weekend of Paramount Pictures' action adventure thriller Congo which was universally panned by critics, to be reminded of the power of the person who created the underlying material: Jurassic Park author Michael Crichton. The film's whopping $24.6 million opening, which shocked insiders, underscored the value to Hollywood of an exclusive club of best-selling writers (Eller 3). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Michael Chrichton's novels all have their similarities. He seems to follow a pattern which is working very well for him. He picks a hot-button subject and uses it to lend his novels a glossy veneer of topicality. He casts his novels with some really detestable villains so attentive readers will automatically know who to root for. He ends each chapter on a scary, cliff- hanging note to make sure that readers will keep reading, regardless of the characters vapidity. He includes many frantic chase scenes or race-against-the- clock scenes that will translate graphically onto the screen. He puts plenty of technical, pseudo-specialist talk into his characters' mouths to give readers the illusion that they're learning something as they quickly flip the pages (Kakutui 3). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Michael Crichton has definitely made a boom in the entertainment industry. Whether it is his top grossing movies or his top rated television shows like E.R. which took a leading twenty prime-time Emmy nominations last year including best drama (Carter 23). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Crichton's latest movie Congo, which had a great opening weekend, was one of his successes. This movie was based on a book that Crichton wrote in the early 80's, long before he became the entertainment powerhouse that he is now. Chrichton's novels seem to be written for big screen translations (Brom 14). Publishers say that they can't recall a time since Jaws and The Exorcist, two decades ago, when movies gave such a boost to the books that inspired them (Romney 5). Michael Chrichton indefinitely tops this long list of authors. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Crichton's novels cover many subjects such as genetic engineering in Jurassic Park, sexual harassment in Disclosure, or Japan's threat to America in Rising Sun (Denby 12). I think that it is this wide variety of subject matter that keeps his readers coming back for more. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Crichton's biggest success by far was the novel Jurassic Park. This book made a sales record in both the novel and on the screen (Turan 11). It ended up grossing over $913 million total in ticket sales and holds the privilege of being the top selling live action movie ever on home video (Wall Street Journal B5). It was such a success that its director, Steven Spielberg,
Monday, September 16, 2019
It is a cardinal truth that, in order to make the best possible use of the economic resources available in any economy, three basic decisions need to be taken Ã¢â¬â what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce. The answers to these three fundamental questions are completely dependent to the extent of governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s interference in the economy. Based on the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the economy, the economic systems are divided into two major categories viz. market or capitalist economy and centrally planned or socialistic or command economy. Market Economy and Centrally Planned Economy The capitalist or market economic system emphasizes complete freedom of individuals as buyers and sellers through the price mechanism. In such a market, price of a commodity is based on market forces of demand and supply. The customers have complete freedom to make choices regarding their purchases and the producers, in turn, allocate their resources according to the respective demand. If the demand of a particular product increases, its price is expected to be increased initially and if the cost price remains the same as before, it will generate more profit for the producers. Naturally, the producers will allocate more resources to that particular product. On the other hand, if the consumers are unwilling to bye a product, its price would fall, resulting in a lower profit or even loss to the producers. But the scenario is completely different in a centrally planned or command or socialistic economy. Here, the three major economic decisions Ã¢â¬â what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce Ã¢â¬â are taken by the government. All major decisions regarding investment, savings and consumptions are practically governed by the central authority. Thus, all the decisions, starting from the allocation of resources to the distribution of end products, are taken care off solely by the government. Unlike a capital market, efficiency in a centrally planned economy can only be achieved only when the demands are accurately estimated and the resources are allocated accordingly. The government fixes the output target for each state and industry and allocates the required resources accordingly. Legal Institution of Private Property vs. Social Ownership: In a market or capitalistic economy, all the properties and means of production belong to the private individuals. The enterprises execute complete freedom and, as a result, the system is often called private enterprise economy. The land, building, machine and other articles of wealth in the country are owned by private firms. This is termed as system of Ã¢â¬Ëprivate propertyÃ¢â¬â¢. Social ownership of property is practically non-existent. But, the situation is completely different in case of a socialist economy. The basic feature of such an economic system is the social or government ownership of means of production such as, land, machine, mineral resources, capital etc. The government allocates the resources according to the requirements and necessity of the nation as a whole, and not on individual preferences. Hence, property ceases to be a source of individual income. Privatization vs. Socialization: Capitalism preaches the freedom of enterprise which means that one is free to engage oneself in whatever economic activity according to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own will. Almost all the economic activities, except some limited number of services rendered by the government (like railways, defense etc. ), are left in the hands of private enterprise. Trade, business and commence are absolutely free from state intervention and control. Business decisions, made by private owners, are ultimate. This is regarded as Ã¢â¬Ëfreedom of enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢. In a centrally planned economy, the vital sectors of economy (like agriculture, industries, trade, commerce etc. ) are owned and governed by the government ownership and management respectively. Almost all the production processes are controlled either directly or indirectly by the government.
Was the Spanish-American war truly as John Hay said, a Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ ? Why or why not? The Spanish-American war was for the American government the first step on the road to becoming a Ã¢â¬Å"global, police powerÃ¢â¬ , for the Spanish it was the dissolution of Cuba and their empire, from said conclusion is it fair to name such a war a success, an aforementioned Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ ?  This essay hopes to examine the limitations of HayÃ¢â¬â¢s statement, the war was to irreversibly Ã¢â¬Å"shape relations between the United States and the rest of the globe for the coming centuryÃ¢â¬ , and it was the trigger that ultimately taught the U. S. the cost of World imperialism. It is impossible to label such a conflict as totally triumphant and simplistic, it was fraught with diplomatic complications, both domestic and colonial, as is written herewith. The situation in Cuba before American intervention had always been precarious; Cuban rebels had continually opposed Spanish rule throughout the 19th Century, such was the animosity between the Cubans and Spanish that it culminated in the erection of some of the first Spanish concentration camps (reconcentrado). Dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Butcher WeylerÃ¢â¬ by the American press, Spanish general Valeriano Weyler sought to curtail the uprisings, thus causing numerous deaths and epidemics among the Cuban inhabitants.  This onslaught erupted both the Cuban population and the American press into a fierce frenzy; American readers experienced a Ã¢â¬Å"battle of gigantic proportionsÃ¢â¬ between two rival newspapers, (New York Journal and New York World), Ã¢â¬Å"in which the sufferings of Cuba merely chanced to furnish some of the most convenient ammunitionÃ¢â¬ . 3] With so much public attention, the Cuban crisis became a great exhibition of jubilation; there was much desire for intervention in the affair. Said exaltation was further prompted by the events of February 15th 1898, when the battleship USS Maine exploded in Havana Harbor killing 266 American sailors. Demands for war with Spain were imminent and colossal, the Ã¢â¬Å"yellow journalismÃ¢â¬ and its fabrication of news intoxicated the Ã¢â¬ Å"whole Country with war feverÃ¢â¬ , slogans of Ã¢â¬Å"Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain! Ã¢â¬ became very popular. 4] Theodore Roosevelt, assistant secretary of the navy, had always been of a militaristic nature, having commented that Ã¢â¬Å"This country needs a warÃ¢â¬ , and proclaiming President William McKinley as Ã¢â¬Å"white-liveredÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"no more backbone than a chocolate eclairÃ¢â¬ , had proclaimed the disaster Ã¢â¬Å"an act of dirty treachery on the part of the SpaniardsÃ¢â¬ .  The longing for war by the public and certain members of government following the atmosphere of hostility prompted, reluctantly, McKinley to declare war on Cuba. Having blockaded Cuba on April 22nd, Spain then subsequently declared war on April 24th. The Spanish-American war was initially a Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ as described by Hay; it was an Ã¢â¬Å"unbroken series of American victoriesÃ¢â¬ within only 10 weeks of combat.  The major campaign of the war occurred at San Juan Hill, where a unit of newly formed Rough Riders under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Roosevelt along with two regiments of African American soldiers stormed a position atop Kettle Hill. So successful was the battle that Roosevelt Ã¢â¬Å"would rather have led that charge than served three terms in the U. S. SenateÃ¢â¬ , that he had been Ã¢â¬Å"revelling in victory and goreÃ¢â¬ . The combination of defeat at San Juan Hill and around the port of Santiago in which Ã¢â¬Å"474 Spanish were killedÃ¢â¬ ¦while only one American was killed and one woundedÃ¢â¬ initiated the surrender of Santiago on July 17th, and the capitulation of Spain on July 26th 1898.  The Treaty of Paris of 1898, signed on December 10, 1898, ended hostilities between the Spanish and the U. S. The Treaty of Paris deemed that Cuba would become an autonomous country, and the U. S. acquired Puerto Rico and Guam with the understanding that Spain be paid twenty million dollars for the Philippines. The scandalist treaty was the subject of much debate in the US Senate during the winter of 1898-1899, which was finally resolved on February 6th, 1899 by a one-vote margin of 57 to 27 with only two Republicans opposed: George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts and Eugene Pryor Hale of Maine. How was it that the U. S. a traditionally isolationist nation, become involved in such conflict. Nationalist historians argue said involvement to have been directed in accordance with constitutional diplomacy and the democratic principle of projecting liberty and national spirit; in essence the American Dream. George Brown Tindall argues that the U. S. involvement in the war was initiated out of a Ã¢â¬Å"sense of outrage at another countryÃ¢â¬â¢s imperialismÃ¢â¬ ; It is true to say that until 1899 Spain had acquired substantial influence over the sugar industry, territory held equated more than the fifty millions that the U. S. held in Cuba. Tindall also argues the impact that public opinion and ferocity had on the declaration of war; Ã¢â¬Å"too much momentum and popular pressureÃ¢â¬ . Indeed said impact was so great that Tindall argues Ã¢â¬Å"the ultimate blame for war, if blame must be levied, belongs to the American peopleÃ¢â¬ . 8] Indeed Ã¢â¬Å"manyÃ¢â¬ ¦were heavily influenced by the view that western imperialism was justified by the (alleged) superiority of Anglo-Saxon and Nordic Ã¢â¬ËracesÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ , that it was warranted for the U. S. to spread her idealism and the American Dream to other civilisations.  There was however more imperialistic interests that influen ced the coming of war, Revisionist historians proclaim the level of U. S. involvement corroborates with desire to defend its own interests that political expansion was in aid of guarantying economic control. Indeed McKinley favoured said intervention and the establishment of a government made up of the Ã¢â¬Å"wealthy Cuban planter classÃ¢â¬ , as he believed it could be controlled economically and Ã¢â¬Å"incorporated into the American SphereÃ¢â¬ .  In the short-term the Ã¢â¬ËprizesÃ¢â¬â¢ of victory over Spain were appealing, not least politically, for many economic advantages came with the acquisition of territory in Cuba and the Philippines. These incentives therefore substantiate HayÃ¢â¬â¢s statement of the American-Spanish conflict as a said Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ , an easy and cost-effective method of amassing a greater economy and furthering the American dream. The overriding advantage for the U. S. was that it was a Ã¢â¬Å"little warÃ¢â¬ , it was also cheap, Ã¢â¬Å"its cost was relatively slightÃ¢â¬ , the fact that it took ten weeks and the lives of Ã¢â¬ËonlyÃ¢â¬â¢ 5,462 U. S. soldiers (379 in actual combat) painted a popular picture of ease in what was the first U. S. campaign.  Politically the advantages came from the influence the U. S. gained through becoming a new major world power. With the precedent of waging and ultimately winning a foreign war, the U. S. had the potential of authority over future entanglements. Flushed with the easy victory over Spain, inflamed by the vision of a colonial empire, many were caught by the propaganda for a naval powerÃ¢â¬ .  Roosevelt stressed Ã¢â¬Å"we must strive in good faith to play a great part in the worldÃ¢â¬ , and by doing Ã¢â¬Å"the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s work by bringing order out of chaosÃ¢â¬ ¦from which the valor of our soldiers and sailors has driven the Spanish flagÃ¢â¬ .  Moreover the U. S. obligation Ã¢â¬Å"to take up the White ManÃ¢â¬â¢s burdenÃ¢â¬ further exacerbated United States political intentions in the global theatre, indeed imperialists such as Senator Albert J. Beveridge and Henry Cabot Lodge, Ã¢â¬Å"stressed AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s moral obligation to extend the benefits of Anglo-Saxon civilization to a backward peopleÃ¢â¬ .  Indeed individuals such as McKinley commented on how Ã¢â¬Å"to educate the Filipinos and uplift and civilize and Christianize them as our fellowmen for whom Christ also diedÃ¢â¬ .  Missionaries became increasingly involved in colonial affairs; they pursued the chance to convert the Ã¢â¬Å"little brown brotherÃ¢â¬ to Christianity for the Ã¢â¬Å"sake of their soulsÃ¢â¬ .  Economically the advantages of the war for the U. S. were of paramount importance, and were of major influence in the initial reasoning for a declaration of war. Cuba in the 19th century was the Ã¢â¬Å"sacred cow of American diplomacyÃ¢â¬ ¦Cuba in American history has often been synonymous with sugarÃ¢â¬ ¦which has the power of stirring more political devils in Washington than any other elixirÃ¢â¬ . Sugar was a major export of America and therefore Cuba became a major concern for economists in a time of unrest and conflict, a potential acquisition for the Ã¢â¬Å"the Sugar TrustÃ¢â¬ ¦the most hated trust in AmericaÃ¢â¬ . 17] Big Business also profited from the notion of expanding global markets, with the new access to China and its multitude of consumers, businesses such as the American Tobacco Company foresaw the new opportunity, naming the Ã¢â¬Å"Philippines (as) the key to the Far EastÃ¢â¬ .  Indeed U. S. involvement in Cuba was startling; Frank M. Steinhart of the National City Bank of New York (NCB) became leading e conomic leader, and was therefore able to ascertain all of CubaÃ¢â¬â¢s resources under the NCB with their 24 Cuban branches. One governmental individual commented no how Ã¢â¬Å"Cuba is no more independent than Long IslandÃ¢â¬ . 19] Colonial empire really did suit the U. S. A. How then could such a Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ be so farcical, why were said consequences of war so detrimental to opinion concerning United States diplomacy? In essence there were three major complications, whose effects brought about severe limitations to HayÃ¢â¬â¢s statement. In short imperialism and the desire for expansion of economy and territory contradicted with U. S. tradition of Ã¢â¬ËisolationismÃ¢â¬â¢, and that the idea of a nation with democratic values holding colonial control was unpalatable by many people. The acquisition of territory far overseas put a great amount of strain upon U. S. administrative and defensive concerns, not least because of their practical distance, but also due to constitutional contradictions. It gave the potential for continental warfare between the Great Powers, and the reality of guerrilla warfare in unfamiliar civilisations. The empire also brought about a further internal conflict, with both governmental and influential individuals, which sparked off following the condemnation of U. S. imperial stature. The U. S. ad only recently acquired an empire of colonies, she was naive and inexperienced with the policing and protection of lands outside of direct U. S. jurisdiction. The activities of rebellious peoples soon exacerbated such concerns, initiating a period of guerrilla warfare, requiring a sharp adaptation of U. S. occupational forces to facilitate a war of counter-insurgency. February 1899 marked the beginning of open hostility and aggression towards the U. S. occupational forces by the Filipino insurgents. The U. S. now had to follow the precedent set by the British, that an empire was a mixed-bag of complications and benefits. Proclaiming the slogan Ã¢â¬Å"No hay derecho a vender un pueblo como se vende un saco de patatasÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"There is no right to sell a nation like a sack of potatoesÃ¢â¬ ), Filipinos launched vicious attacks on the forces of Aguinaldo and Mabini to oppose the Ã¢â¬Å"new colonial mastersÃ¢â¬ .  The U. S. soon discovered they were running a counterinsurgency every bit as brutal as anything that Ã¢â¬Å"Butcher WeylerÃ¢â¬ had done in Cuba. Regular army soldiers, many of them veterans of the U. S. Indian wars, undertook Ã¢â¬Å"marked severitiesÃ¢â¬ (as one termed it) against these new Ã¢â¬Å"IndiansÃ¢â¬ . One U. S. rmy officer wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"We must have no scruples about exterminating this other race standing in the way of progress, if it is necessaryÃ¢â¬ . Many questioned the point of attempting to hold such alien territory, when there were ongoing domestic problems, one newspaper editor commented that it was Ã¢â¬Å"a sinful extravagance to waste our civilizing inf luence upon the unappreciative Filipinos when it is so badly needed right here in ArkansasÃ¢â¬ . During July 1902, the U. S. declared the Philippine Insurrection over, 200,000 to 220,000 Filipinos had died, and of whom only 15,000 were actual combatants, which suggest that U. S. forces consciously made war on the enemy's entire society that the concept of total war occurred fifty years earlier than 1939.  Critics of expansionism were another annoyance for the U. S. government. Those in office found the idea of dependency incredibly taxing, that the foreign acquisitions would perpetuate existing domestic problems. Other member foresaw that the ruling of said overseas dependencies would contradict, even violate, the Ã¢â¬Å"premises of republican government and the values of classical liberalismÃ¢â¬ . Although he failed to fervor his stance on U. S. imperialism in the presidential election of 1900, William Jennings Bryan became a high profile contester of expansionism; as a result, the election did not provide a clear mandate for or against overseas empire. Opponents of the U. S. Empire even more fervent than Bryan established the Anti-Imperialist League in Boston to oppose the Philippine Insurrection and colonialism. Erving Winslow, Edward Atkinson, Moorfield Storey, William James, Andrew Carnegie, and former President Grover Cleveland added their voices to the anti-imperialist chorus. However due to their narrow upper-class and governmental social base, the Ã¢â¬Å"antisÃ¢â¬ were unable to generate much support for their arguments, indeed Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov Lenin described them as Ã¢â¬Å"the last of the Mohicans of bourgeois democracyÃ¢â¬ .  Despite the apparent failure to change U. S. foreign policy, the Anti-Imperialism League became a major concern of the government, not least because its foundation was made of some actual political personalities thus creating the rifts of viewpoint shown, but it also caused embarrassment in the face of public and international scrutiny into the affair and the consequences of it thereafter. Indeed such was the strain of the opposition that the government even suppressed the delivery of three anti-imperialism pamphlets to Manila written by, vice president of the Anti-Imperialism League, Edward Atkinson. Economists too were somewhat discouraged by the U. S. involvement in foreign relations, indeed the firm Gompers recognized the problematic nature of overseas economic development. These economists feared the possible conflict of competition regarding the expansion of existing U. S. monopolies and conglomerates, foreseeing their impact on foreign society in the pursuit and carving up of land, resources, and profit. Foreign competition was also of major concern, believing the Ã¢â¬Å"menace of cheap oriental laborÃ¢â¬ as detrimental to the U. S. proletariat.  The fabled China market and political engrossment of overseas markets meant the establishment of an Ã¢â¬Å"open doorÃ¢â¬ in China and to the protection of the territorial integrity of China. This therefore threatened war, a political tool to be reluctantly used if other powers obstructed U. S. entry into China market, only war could sustain the policy. The rising sun of Japan and Tsarist Russia therefore threatened future U. S. non-entanglement. In conclusion it is inaccurate to deem the 1898 war and Philippine Insurrection as Ã¢â¬Å"splendid littleÃ¢â¬ wars; in reality each was fraught with so many conflicting problems and consequences. To many individuals the concept of colonial expansion was exciting, not least as it perpetuated U. S. power and influence but many sought to gain economically, spiritually and personally from said imperialism. The cost of empire was of higher significance however, as its political costs were severely detrimental to the McKinley administration, its effects on physical practicalities of defense and economy damaging, and the diplomatic portrayal of the U. S. A embarrassing. Eighty years previously John Quincy Adams had predicted the outcome of U. S. involvement in global conflict, Ã¢â¬Å"no matter how righteous the initial causeÃ¢â¬ ¦her policy would insensibly change from liberty to forceÃ¢â¬ ¦She might become dictatress of the WorldÃ¢â¬ . Hay was wrong, 1898 was never a Ã¢â¬Å"splendid little warÃ¢â¬ , never a war Ã¢â¬Å"on behalf of people other than its ownÃ¢â¬ .  Bibliography B. Bailyn, The Great Republic: History of the American People Vol. II; Toronto, DC Heath Canada, 1998 J. L. Bates, The United States 1898-1928 Ã¢â¬â Progressivism and a Society in Transition; New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. , 1976 H. Brogan, The Penguin History of the United States; London, Penguin, 2001 H. Underwood Faulkner, A History of American life Vol. XI Ã¢â¬â The Quest for Social Justice 1898-1914; New York, The Macmillan Co. , 1961 S. Foner, The Spanish Cuban American War and the Birth of American Imperialism 1895-1902. Vol. I; New York, 1972 L. B. Francisco, and J. Shepard Fast, Conspiracy for Empire Ã¢â¬â Big Business, Corruption and the Politics of Imperialism in America, 1876-1907; Quezon City, Philippines, Foundation for Nationalist Studies, 1985 E. Cobbs Hoffman, and J. Gjerde, Major Problems in American History. Vol. II Since 1865; Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co. 2002 M. A. Jones, The Limits of Liberty Ã¢â¬â American history 1607-1980; Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1983 T. Mahan, Lessons of war with Spain; London, Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. , 1899 J. B. Moore, Four Phases of American Development; New York, Balt, 1912 C. S. Olcott, Life of McKinley Ã¢â¬â Vol. II; Boston, Houghton M ifflin Co. , 1916 J. R. Stromberg, The Spanish-American War: The Leap into Overseas Empire; U. S. A, The Future of Freedom Foundation, 1999 G. Brown Tindall and D. E. Shi, America: A Narrative History Ã¢â¬â Sixth edition; New York, W. W. Norton & Co. , 2004 Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â  E. Cobbs Hoffman, and J. Gjerde, Major Problems in American History. Vol. II Since 1865, p. 98.  G. Brown Tindall and D. E. Shi, America: A Narrative History Ã¢â¬â Sixth edition, p. 759  Ibid  G. Brown Tindall and D. E. Shi, America: A Narrative History Ã¢â¬â Sixth edition, p. 760  Ibid  M. A. Jones, The Limits of Liberty Ã¢â¬â American history 1607-1980, p. 402  G. Brown Tindall and D. E. Shi, America: A Narrative History Ã¢â¬â Sixth edition, p. 764  Ibid, pp. 759 and 762  L. B. Francisco, and J. Shepard Fast, Conspiracy for Empire Ã¢â¬â Big Business, Corruption and the Politics of Imperialism in America, 1876-1907, p. 135  Ibid, p. 141  G. Brown Tindall and D. E. Shi, America: A Narrative History Ã¢â¬â Sixth edition p. 764  J. B. Moore, Four Phases of American Development, pp. 147-148  E. Cobbs Hoffman, and J. Gjerde, Major Problems in American History. Vol. II Since 1865, p. 100  M. A. Jones, The Limits of Liberty Ã¢â¬â American history 1607-1980, p. 403  C. S. Olcott, Life of McKinley Ã¢â¬â Vol. II Boston, Houghton Mifflin co. 1916  G. Brown Tindall and D. E. Shi, America: A Narrative History Ã¢â¬â Sixth edition, p. 765  L. B. Francisco, and J. Shepard Fast, Conspiracy for Empire Ã¢â¬â Big Business, Corruption and the Politics of Imperialism in America, 1876-1907, p. 33  H. Underwood Faulkner, A History of American life Vol. XI Ã¢â¬â The Quest for Social Justice 1898-1914, p. 310  H. Underwood Faulkner, A History of American life Vol. XI Ã¢â¬â The Quest for Social Justice 1898-1914, p. 313  J. R. Stromberg, The Spanish-American War: The Leap into Overseas Empir e, p. 2  Ibid  J. R. Stromberg, The Spanish-American War: The Leap into Overseas Empire, p. 2  H. Underwood Faulkner, A History of American life Vol. XI Ã¢â¬â The Quest for Social Justice 1898-1914, p. 310  E. Cobbs Hoffman, and J. Gjerde, Major Problems in American History. Vol. II Since 1865, p. 97
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Dirt can be referred to as a relatively soft, loose sedimentations which can be excavated by manus or tool Sutton, 1993. Soil comprises of two different constituents, minerals derived from enduring stones and organic minerals derived from workss and micro-organisms ( Michael & A ; Donald, 1999 ) . Contaminated dirt by hint of metals is an issue that requires attending because of the consequence it might do on to planetary environment and human wellness ( Abrahams, 2002 ) . Expert in the survey of dirt provinces that there are differences between rural and urban dirt by measuring the sum of hint metals ( Kabata-Pendias, 2001 ) . Application of inordinate chemicals for illustration fertilisers, weedkillers or sewerage sludge from intervention works for more outputs without sing the short or long term consequence has made dirt to go a limited resource particularly in towns and metropoliss for largely allotment holders. These chemicals contain important sum of hint metals which bit by bit accumulate in the dirt over clip and finally pollute the dirt rendering it useless for development ( Adriano, 2001 ) . Allotment dirts which are largely for cultivation of harvests and veggies for human ingestion requires serious attending. This is true for Marsh lane allocations in London which is extremely contaminated with heavy metals ( Jeffries & A ; Martin, 2009 ) .Heavy metals and organic contaminations on dirt surface can present menaces to human wellness in the close hereafter for allotment holder if redress is non put into consideration instantly ( London Development Agency, 2005 ) . It is hence necessary to measure dirt belongingss for any dirt hazard or suitableness appraisal for lodging with workss, grass, bushs and trees. This is because all dirt belongingss can act upon the behavior of hint metals every bit shortly as the heavy metals are absorbed by dirts and workss. 1.1 AIM The purpose of this study is to entree the sum of metal taint and bioavailability/mobility of selected hint of elements at Tolworth Court Farmland, for suitableness of the intended land usage. 1.2 Aim The aims of the study are: To study and take samples from Tolworth tribunal farm. To find dirt PH value. To find dirt organic affair. ( SOM ) To find cation exchange capacity ( CEC ) To find the entire hint metal component from dirt utilizing HNO3 and ICP-AES. To find the possible bioavailability of hint component with IM HN4NO To find suitableness for land intent. 2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 Description of site 2.2 Soil Sampling A figure of quality composite samples were gotten through the usage of satisfied random trying method. The equipment was exhaustively clean before continuing to each intended country to avoid taint from one point to another and samples were collected at the deepness of 10cm utilizing a manus plumber's snake. All dirt samples collected in paper bags were labelled. 2.3 Soil Preparations. Dirt samples were grinded. Prior to analysis samples were air dried at 40oC for three yearss and exhaustively through a 2mm nylon screen to take any possible works dust harsh fragment and dead foliages. The dirt pH and entire organic affair were analysed at Kingston University Laboratory, London. 2.4 Soil pH. Bullock and Gregory ( 1991 ) suggested that to find dirt pH the best practical method could be the usage of H2O pH method. Duplicate oven dried dirt samples, weighing 10g each were added with 25 milliliters of de-ionize H2O, and utilizing a pH metre which was calibrated at pH 4, 7 and 9.2. 2.5 Soil organic affair [ SOM ] For the finding of dirt organic affair, Walkley-Black method was used ( walkley, 1947 ) 10 ml solution of K bichromate was added to three replicate of grinded dirt samples weighing 0.4 g and 20 milliliter of sulfuric acid added to it and left for 30 proceedingss. Thereafter, 200 milliliter of de-ionize H2O and 10 milliliter of concentrated orthor-phosphoric acid was added to the dirt sample solution. Several beads of index solution [ Ba diphenylamine sulphonate ] , titration of dirt solution with 0.5M-ammonium ferric sulfate solution. Soil sample was carefully observed at the terminal point as it changes its coloring material from bluish to green. 2.6 Cation Exchange Capacity [ CEC ] Determination of CEC, was done by a suspension of 4g of dirt sample in 33ml of IM Na ethanoate solution thrice. Ethanol was used for taking of extra impregnation in the dirt solution. Sodium ion [ Na+ ] exchange index was displaced with NH4+ ion so finding was made utilizing flame emanation spectroscopy for cation exchange capacity of dirt sample. 2.7 Entire metal content For entire metal concentration, the usage of azotic acid [ HNO3 ] for decomposition process was applied. 1.5g of dirt sample was introduced into three different acerb clean 100ml conelike flask, and 20ml of concentrated azotic acid was added from a dispenser. After heating at 50oC for 30 min. dirt samples were allowed to chill before reassigning into 100ml volumetric flask utilizing Whatman filter paper No. 541. At this point sample was ready for finding of hint component by inductively coupled plasma atomic emanation spectroscopy [ ICP-AES ] . 2.8 Potential bioavailability hint component For this facet, IM NH4NO3 was used to measure the metal mobility in dirt sample. 1M NH4NO3 of which 50ml was added to dirty sample weighing 5g, it was agitate for 60 min. at 200 revolutions per minute. After agitating, samples were filtered utilizing whatman 41 filter paper. The infusion was used for finding of potentially bioavailability hint component by ICP-AES 2.9.0 Quality Control 2.9.1 Quality Assurance Measures The research lab activities of this study was closely examine to be able to detect any taint or malfunction so that if any occur it could be identified and corrected. Measures were taken to do certain that all laboratory equipment were exhaustively clean before and after each usage. 2.9.2 Reproduction In this study, three dirt samples were used throughout the same trial. 2.9.3 Certified Reference Material [ CRM ] This stuff enables traceability to the International System of unit. CRM contains known dirt belongingss and mineral measures by weight ( Mackay & A ; Kazlauskas, 2011 ) . This was provided in the University research lab and was really utile for digestion of acid in entire heavy metal extraction experiment from samples without being cognizant of how efficient the is during the digestion. 2.9.4 Reagent space Reagent spaces were besides included in the finding processes, and treated the same manner the dirt samples were treated. The consequence of the reagent spaces were subtracted from the samples to take any signifier of divergence which might hold been present in the chemicals used in the research lab work. 3.0 Consequences and Discussions 3.1 Soil pH Soil trial Mean Standard divergence pH 5.165 0.06363 Table 3.1 dirt pH Soil pH of country A, B and C are reasonably acidic as shown in the above tabular array 3.1. The values are 5.12 and 5.21. The sites have merely little differences in which country A is has the highest pH value and C has the lowest country. Crops can really turn on the investigated site ; this is support by Alloway ( 1990 ) the pH degree for cultivable harvests is 6.5 on mineral dirts and 5.5 on peaty dirts. Miller and Gardiner ( 1998 ) besides agreed that most agricultural workss can turn at its best in somewhat acidic dirt. Strongly acidic dirt status will increase the solubility and mobility of heavy metals that are present in the dirt, this will expose workss to put on the line as metals will be absorbed through works roots, workss finally become contaminated with high degree of heavy metals, this is true for elements like Zn, Co and Cu ( Mattina et al. , 2003 ) . Nitrification seem to be absent in acid dirts, microorganisms can non accommodate to acidic environment and finally its metabolic rate is reduced and C disrupted ( Alloway & A ; Ayres, 1993 ) . Soil sourness can be regulated by application of calcium hydroxide to dirty to increase the pH degree to 6.5 ( Blevins et al. , 1978 ) . 3.2 Soil organic affair 3.3 Cation exchange capacity Ion exchange is said to be an exchange between counter-ions that balances surface charge on dirt colloids whether the dirt is organic dirt, clay dirt or mineral dirt and the ion in the dirt solution, nevertheless, cation exchange capacity is the extent to which dirt components can move as cation money changer ( Alloway & A ; Ayres, 1993 ) .