Thursday, March 12, 2020
The Language of Health Informatics Essay Example The Language of Health Informatics Paper The Language of Health Informatics Paper Preferred language style: English (U. S. ). For this case assignment, you will be assuming the role of a lead person on a technology review committee at a multi-facility regional hospital. Your committee has been tasked with evaluating the plausibility and possible selection of a new health information system that will enable the hospital to electronically collect and share patient medical history information among its various hospital centers and departments. Currently, each hospital center maintains paper copies and files of patient records, which are separately managed and stored at each facility. Very few of the electronically based information system are integrated between the various centers and locations. To add to the challenge, the CIO informs you that most of the members on the committee have very limited experience with information systems and databases. However, the CIO is aware that you are studying health informatics, so she has asked you to help familiarize the committee with fundamental concepts related to databases systems and relevant health information standards. Specifically, the CIO (and your professor) requests that you prepare a two (full) page paper for presentation to the committee that provides a good overview of the following: Fundamentals of database characteristics and structure. Various types of medical data and information records relevant to this project. The importance of uniform terminology, coding and standardization of the data. Various information standards and organizations that may be applicable, and possibly required, for this project. Remember, your committee is mostly comprised of clinicians and other healthcare practitioners. Accordingly, they do not have a great deal of technical knowledge related to information systems. Introduction The objective of this project is to create a new electronic patient management health information system in order to handle the flow of patient information. This system is to basically enter process, store, modify and transmit the patient information. The current system is a manual one, in which the data is hand written down and stored in the form of hard copies. A lot of hassles are experience with the current system. Hence, it is proposed to shift to an electronic system. Fundamentals of database characteristics and structure The health information system database seems to be highly specialized functional and structural units integrated in a particular hospital environment. The system not only helps to manage the processes but also helps in the functioning of the hospital. The data is collected from the patient entry system or from integration with other networks. It then passes through the internal network for use by the various staff units including patients, laboratory, clinical, nursing units, intensive care unit, pharmaceutical, management, administrators, etc. The database would be performing several functions including processing and storing medical data, ensuring that certain quality standards are met, reporting costs and ensuring that cost-effective strategies are followed and also providing templates and forms for medical entries. Several functions such as quality control, resource handling, administration, etc, are taken care of by the database. The health information system would convert the data entered into information using the computational devices. The information can be stored and used.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)- English Literature Essay (100 Level Course) Free Online Research Papers Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)- English Literature Essay (100 Level Course) Chaucer was born in London, probably about 1340. The son of a well-to-do wine merchant, he had the opportunity of coming into contact with the new merchant class. In 1357 he entered the household of the Duke of ClarenceÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, thus coming to move in Court circles as well. At the age of nineteen he took part in the Hundred YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War, was per haps taken prisoner by the French and then ransomed by King Edward III. Back in England, he returned to service at Court. He was often sent abroad on diplomatic missions and also visited Italy, where he probably met Petrarch and Boccaccio and read some Dante. He sat in Parliament as the representative of Kent. The many ups and downs of his life never prevented him from writing. He died in 1400 and was the first poet to be buried in PoetsÃ¢â¬â¢ Corner in Westminster Abbey. ChaucerÃ¢â¬â¢s literary production is usually divided into three periods: (in imitation of the French) Le Roman de la Rose, an unfinished translation of the French allegorical poem by Guillaume de Lorris and Jean de Meung. The Book of the Duchess, an allegorical lament on the death of John of GauntÃ¢â¬â¢s first wife. (mostly under Italian and Latin influence) Troilus and Criseyde, from BoccaccioÃ¢â¬â¢s Filostrato. - The House of Fame, for which he was partly indebted to Dante and Ovid. The Legend of Good Women, made up of an allegorical prologue and nine stories of women, for which he was indebted to OvidÃ¢â¬â¢s Hero ides. - The Parliament of Fowls, rich in comic spirit. (also called the English Period) The Canterbury Tales, although some of the tales later introduced into the work had been written earlier. Chaucer was certainly the right man at the right time. His contacts at Court, his diplomatic missions abroad, his frequent journeys throughout England, as well as his experience in the newly formed Parliament gave him the opportunity to meet many kinds of people: nobles, churchmen, merchants, students, commoners, each belonging to a precise social class or profession. As for Eng land itself, it had finally developed into a united, self-confident and highly patriotic nation. When he realized that his country was ready for a literature of its own, he decided to write a work in English (that is to say Middle English), which could be understood by anybody, learned or unlettered, who read or heard it.1 His initial idea was certainly to write a collection of tales, as the title suggests. Writing tales, however, was fashionable at the time, especially after the French and Italian models which looked back in turn to ancient Greece and Rome. But Chaucer probably had another purpose in mind: he wanted to give his countrymen a hook that would be a true mirror of England and in which they could really recognize themselves. So when he began his masterpiece (probably in 1387) he turned for inspiration to the many people he had met during his life and whose images he had stored in his memory for years. He nevertheless needed a framework in which to insert them, and once more he turned to his European culture for help. He probably remembered BoccaccioÃ¢â¬â¢s Decameron, and found here the idea of a social event as a pretext for bringing various people together. This event, however, was to be typically English, so he thought that the traditional annual pilgrimage to Canterbury would certainly be the best setting for his characters. He therefore imagined that, one April day in the Tabard Inn at Southwark in London, twenty-nine pilgrims met before setting out on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury. The host of the Inn, Harry Bailly, offered his services as guide and suggested that each pilgrim should tell two stories on the way to Canterbury and two on the way back. Chaucer himself was invited to join the company, as we learn from the opening lines of the poem. Research Papers on Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)- English Literature Essay (100 Level Course)Quebec and CanadaThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 Europe19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraMind TravelStandardized TestingAppeasement Policy Towards the Outbreak of World War 2The Fifth HorsemanPersonal Experience with Teen PregnancyInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males
Monday, February 24, 2020
On an individual basis critically analyse the CSR strategy of Disney drawing upon Husted and Allens 7-step corporate social strategy framework - Assignment Example It will also help them to design the implementation plan of the strategy. Corporate social responsibility is the initiative taken by any organisation to assess various social and environmental issues and actively participating in the betterment of the society. 7 steps of well designed strategic plan have been introduced by Husted and Allen for the proper implementation of corporate social strategy (Husted and Allen, 2010). The 7 step framework of Husted and Allen has been used to design the implementation plan of corporate social strategy of Disney. The CSR of Disney includes activities such as healthy cleaning, recycling of waste materials, providing nutrition guidelines and online safety for kids (Hopkins, 2012). Women economic empowerment is a factor that can be considered by Disney to expand their existing range of CSR activity. Economic condition of women is miserable in various parts of African and Asian countries. The locations of Disney in those countries can help them to resolve this issue. Large companies like Wal-Mart and Coca-Cola are already involved in various operations to enhance the economical position of women in the society. Government of those countries are attracting more investment from top corporate towards the solution of unemployment and poverty (Lownes-Jackson and Guy, 2012). Disney can conduct training facility for the women under poverty level of these countries to enhance their working skills. Offering employment to these women can improve the economical status of these countries. Disney needs to analyse their available resources and the capabilities of the organisation before creating any plan. The major resources of any organisation are their financial resources and physical assets. Walt Disney holds a large number of consumer franchises that caters from soft toys selling to theme parks which are established in various parts of Africa and Asia. They have
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Apple Computer, Inc. v. Microsoft Corporation - Research Paper Example Currently, Apple and Microsoft are worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading companies in the computer industry. Microsoft is headed by Bill Gates whereas AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO is Steve Jobs. Many people believe that the competition between these two companies is actually the competition between these two charismatic leaders; Bill Gates and Steven Jobs. Microsoft succeeded in monopolising the operating system market in the world with the help of their renowned Windows based operating system. On the other hand Apple tried to conquer the global consumer electronics market with the help of diversified products. Apple faced many ups and downs in their history since its introduction. It faced stiff challenges in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s; however it was able to bounce back with the help of innovation and change management principles implemented in the organization during the latter periods of 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s and the at the beginning of the twenty-first century. On the other hand, Microsoft has not faced many challenges during their last 35 years of history. However, at present, Microsoft is facing several challenges from companies like Apple, Google etc. This paper compares the performances of Apple and Microsoft since their introduction. The first thing we all know is that during 1995-97, Apple lost control of the business market. IT managers needed something Apple wasn't able to supply: a capable back office system with authentication and management tools. Apple appeared to be ambivalent about this loss of the business market, and a series of poor CEOs failed to understand the evolution of business requirements and failed to bring clarity to Apple's vision (Martellaro, 2006) The battle for dominance between Apple and Microsoft was intensified in 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. Apple introduced their Macintosh OS in response to MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s Windows in the 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. However, Apple failed to capture the market whereas Microsoft did succeed in monopolising the operating system market. AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s failure in providing the necessary solutions to the IT managers, opened many opportunities to Microsoft which they accepted with both hands. A series of windows based products like Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP, Vista etc entered the market which helped Microsoft to monopolize the operating system market. Microsoft did everything possible to sustain their monopoly in the operating system market. They have introduced many application software which are compatible only with the Windows operating system. For example, the MS Office package including software like MS word, MS excel, MS power point, MS access etc are compatible only with Windows operating system. Majority of the global computer users were badly in need of this application software and Microsoft was able to maintain their supremacy with the help of these software packages. Another business strategy successfully implemented by Microsoft was their meaningful collaboration with Microsoft chip manufacturers and other business associates. For example, Microsoft established business collaboration with Intel, one of the prominent microprocessor manufacture
Saturday, February 8, 2020
El Nino And Disease - Essay Example Although largely a regional phenomenon, as Fagan portrays, the effects are global in nature, as shown through various analyses. Warm ocean water temperatures, occurring anomalously, do develop from the South American west coast and influence climatic conditions across the vast Pacific Ocean. The El NiÃ ±o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) refers to different variations, in terms of the surface ocean temperatures along the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. Air surface pressure is also affected within the Pacific OceanÃ¢â¬â¢s tropical eastern region with the two variations being coupled (successive in nature). First, is the warm oceanic phase (El NiÃ ±o), which goes hand in hand with high air surface pressure, within the western Pacific region.Next follows the cold phase, which occurs with low oceanic air pressure. The above scenario portrays two extremes of climatic patterns, with the oscillations causing such conditions as droughts on the one hand, and floods on the other. This is the pr imary reason, why cholera and malaria are the most endemic of diseases significantly influenced by this phenomenon. Regionally, the wider Pacific Ocean is affected, in terms of water temperatures (both above and below the surface); in addition to developing nations, especially those bordering the water mass. These states, majorly dependent upon the fishing industry, and the agricultural sector are thus influenced in more than one way.Not only is their economic basis majorly affected, so too are the prevailing health statistics.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Apply for graduate school, MA in Economics - Personal Statement Example In spite of the fact that I already have a degree for developing a career, becoming an outstanding professional with specialized knowledge in my field is my immediate objective for pursuing the course. This is because my previous academic background is so wide with inadequate Ã¢â¬Ëin-depthÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge in economic principles and theories for practical application. I further believe that taking the course from a distinguished institution like yours, which is also a key competitive advantage in the job market, and eventually establishing my career in a reputable international organization will be a key to my professional objective. The need for highly rated economists to solve existing economic problems at different levels of the society, local, national, and international levels has also motivated my desire to pursue the Masters degree in economics because it provides an opportunity to influencing policies for the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s economic benefit. My intention to complete the masters program also factors in a number of personal goals. Upon completing the degree, I hope to work with a social international agency that specializes in economic empowerment of communities in Ã¢â¬Ëpoverty-strickenÃ¢â¬â¢ developing countries, a position from which I shall be able to initiate positive transitions in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives besides conducting research into economic theories. Sharing my acquired knowledge with other members of the society is also my goal into the course. I for instance intend to apply my knowledge in lecturing university and college students as a part time activity. Further, upon attaining my professional goal towards a recognized social status, I hope to be a socially responsible member of the society through mobilization and empowerment of the youth towards pursuits for higher education, entrepreneurial ventures, and social responsibility. This is because the youth lacks dedicated
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
History of Bolsheviks in Russia Essay The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903. The Bolsheviks were the majority faction in a crucial vote, hence their name. They ultimately became the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia during the October Revolution phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and founded the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic which would later in 1922 become the chief constituent of the Soviet Union. The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir IllyichLenin, were by 1905 a mass organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of Russia. Their beliefs and practices were often referred to as Bolshevism. Bolshevik revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky commonly used the terms Bolshevism and Bolshevist after his exile from the Soviet Union to differentiate between what he saw as true Leninism and the regime within the state and the party which arose under Josef Stalin but as we will get to know there are similar traits to the Bolsheviks regime and that of Stalins. The Bolsheviks were journalists long before they were state leaders, and they never forgot the impact of a well-aimed message and the role of media. Newspapers were the life-line of the underground party. Formative ideological and political debates were conducted in them; reporters and deliverers evolved into party cadres; and readers became rank-and-file supporters. At times, newspapers smuggled from abroad kept the Party alive; and Lenins editorials often forestalled factional division. Revolutionary struggle taught Bolsheviks the value of mass media, and confirmed their belief that culture is inherently partisan. In times of political turmoil, they exploited it skillfully. Illegal front-line newspapers helped turn soldiers against the Great War; effective propaganda helped win the Civil War. Yet the revolutionaries knew that the same weapons could be used against them. When they took power, they protected themselves by denying the opposition access to public opinion; printing presses, theaters, movie houses were all eventually confiscated and placed under state monopoly. The Bolsheviks considered these measures necessary and just to maintain power and control as the ruling and dominant political party. Soviet authorities were never ashamed of their monopoly on different aspects of culture. Culture was a weapon of class struggle as identified by similar events in the Chinese Revolution as the media and its variety of channels would amplify the rate and effieciancy of propaganda. Allowing the enemy access to mass media would have seemed criminally stupid. To debate the ethics of censorship was a waste of time; the Bolsheviks concern was how to mold popular values, how to reach the masses, reflect the wishes of the state and censure alien ideals. This essay will look at the reason why the Bolsheviks were convinced that a stringent control over the media through a monopolistic system was necessary for holding unto political power but would eventually lead to press freedom for the masses due to a systematic process of internally socializing the Soviet Union with a strong appeal to the working class which would help solidify the Bolsheviks political power in the long term. With a strong thought that they overly represented the working class, the control over the media represented one of the strongest tools to control and effectively influence the social working class in the Soviet Union. 1 Bolsheviks and the Media The early twentieth-century media suited Bolshevik purposes. Under Bolshevik sponsorship, they spoke with one powerful voice, unweakened by dissent or excessive subtlety, unencumbered by complexity. Red propaganda depicted a world of stark contrasts: Bolsheviks were valorous and self-sacrificing; the Whites were cruel and debauched. It was no time for half-tones or self-conscious irony. Bolshevik propaganda might seem heavy-handed, yet judging by its success, much of the public did not resent the overbearing tone. Opponents on both the left and right were no match for the Bolshevik blitz, and some, like the Whites, were particularly ineffective in shaping public opinion. Discussions of Soviet mass culture have usually dwelt on its administration and rhetoric more than content and reception. This is unfortunate, because mass culture was a rare example of equilateral negotiation in Soviet society. The culture gap could not be forced as it stood as an obstacle to the unity of the nation behind one unilateral political party. The economy could be socialized; industry could be whipped into higher production; and citizens could be made, at tremendous cost, to behave as they should. But socialist society demanded not that people just say the necessary things, but also think them in private. Socialism had to be internalized. Many Bolsheviks saw the mass media as the path from ideology to internal thought. It converted abstract phrases into concrete images. Propaganda demanded the cooperation of three groups: the Party and state, which provided the content; the skills of writers and artists, who made ideas into image; and the audience, which received and digested the images. Leaders, artists, and citizens all acknowledged the wishes of the other. The audience craved interesting material; the state needed its values represented by symbols; artists desired an arena for their creative energies (and a respectable living). One side-the audience-stayed mute about its thoughts, yet even at the height of tyranny, no mass audience could be forced to watch a movie or read a book. After claiming to represent the working class and finally taken power in Russia, the Bolsheviks saw themselves as the rightful representation of the working class. Though the Bolsheviks felt they were right in claiming to represent working class within their many promises and strong influence, they were not justified in making this claim in the end. The party felt it had won the right to represent the proletarians by promising freedom and self-government, but after demonstrations such as the Kronstadt Rebellion and the formation of the Cheka, it became apparent that the Bolsheviks had betrayed the working class. Firstly, the Bolsheviks felt that they were a clear representation of the working class. One of the main reasons for this assumption was LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s irresistible promises to the working class. In LeninÃ¢â¬â¢s work Ã¢â¬Å"Declaration of the Rights of the Toiling and Exploited PeoplesÃ¢â¬ he outlines the rights and privileges promised by the Bolshevik party if they should come into power. One of the first rights he outlines is Ã¢â¬Å"The sovereignty of the people; i. e. , the concentration of the supreme power of the state in a unicameral legislative assembly composed of representatives of the people. Lenin sets out to demonstrate how the Bolshevik party stands for peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s representation in government, to further show the proletarians that the Bolshevik party is a Ã¢â¬Å"peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s partyÃ¢â¬ . Lenin then goes on to point out that workers should be given the right to Ã¢â¬Å"Unrestricted freedom of conscience, speech, press and assembly; the right to strike and to form trade unions. Ã¢â¬ Because these new rights and freedoms were never available to the proletarians under the Tsarist regime, the promises made by the Bolsheviks were too good to pass up. In addition, the strength of the influence of the BolsheviksÃ¢â¬â¢ served to gain support of the working class to the extent that other parties could not reach. Alex Shotman demonstrates how he and many others like him were influenced more by Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks , than any other party leader. The result of this debate and many others like it demonstrate how Bolshevik influence dominated in comparison to that of any other party. Because of the many promises and strong influence of the Bolshevik party, its members felt that they were justified in representing the working class. The validity of this idea, however, proved to be questionable after the Bolsheviks came into power. 2. Monopoly and the Media The Bolsheviks established a state monopoly of the media that absorbed literature, art, and science into a stylized and ritualistic public culturea form of political performance that became its own reality and excluded other forms of public reflection. Although Lenin had control he wasnt completely supported by the people of Russia. To gain support Lenin made a secret police force, which was in charge of erasing any opposition to the party. The Bolsheviks were also renamed the Communists. Freedom of press was cancelled, unless you supported the Communist cause. The government took control of all ways of life. Lenin also made peace with the germans as he knew if war continued, the revolution wouldnt fully work. Although some were angery with the losses Russia had in the treaty, the Bolsheviks were in control, though it was not a steady form of control. There was still widespread opposition and soon a civil war broke out. he socialist ideologyon the freedom of press viewed it from two categories. Firstly the Leninism-marxism was completely against the idea of freedom of press as either absolute or abstract. The argument embodying this was that in a capitalist society the notion of freedom of press applied only to the Bourgeoisie and therefore the right to freedom of press applied to only a small percentage of the population. The first action to implement restrictions on the freedom of speech was the introduction of the De cree of the Press authored by Lenin himself. The Decree and form of press which advocated for opposition and insubordination to the ruling communist party. An excerpt from the Decree below details the the thought of Lenin on how the monopolising the press would later benefit the masses and the working class: Ã¢â¬Å"For the bourgeoisie, freedom of the press meant freedom for the rich to publish and for the capitalists to control the newspapers, a practice which in all countries, including even the freest, produced a corrupt press. For the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ and peasantsÃ¢â¬â¢ government, freedom of the press means liberation of the press from capitalist oppression, and public ownership of paper mills and printing presses; equal right for public groups of a certain size (say, numbering 10,000) to a fair share of newsprint stocks and a corresponding quantity of printersÃ¢â¬â¢ labour. Ã¢â¬ He recognised both the revolutionary potential of the workers press, see for example a number of his early articles such as Where to Begin and What is to be Done, and the reactionary role of the bosses papers (as did Marx later in his life). However, the class nature of society had actually corrupted the press, according to this resolution. Against the bosses newspapers, the revolutionary government set up a commission to examine the links between the capitalist press, shareholders and who owns, funds and organises the bosses newspapers. However, at this stage of the revolution the bosses press had not been suppressed, that came soon after with the invasion of Soviet Russia by 19 different armies and attempts to undermine the revolution. Sadly, these measures of suppression in part laid the basis for the later dictatorship of Stalin and the snuffing out of freedoms alone with wholesale state terror and murder of millions. In one way the suppression of the press proved Marxs original point about human freedom but in a far more terrible way. 3. Aftermath of Monopolising Freedom of the press in the Soviet Union The Bolshevik leadership took it for granted that the revolutionary changes that they would carry out in the area of property relations, that is economic reforms, would result in equal revolutionary changes in culture. Thus in the first decade of their rule, the Bolsheviks would allow a degree of tolerance for independent creativity as well as developing government policies to mould the thoughts and behaviour of its citizens. The Bolsheviks were prepared to use propaganda on a scale never before used by any government to create a people attuned to the ideological dictates of their rulers. To this end, Lenin created a series of institutions to manage every aspect of public activity. The Supreme Council of the National Economy was formed to direct and coordinate all aspects of the communist economy. All matters dealing with the security of the State were entrusted to the Cheka and the Revolutionary Military Council handled every aspect of the Civil War. To manage the social revolution, Lenin consolidated all cultural organisations into a single large bureaucratised institution called the Commissariat of Enlightenment (=Narkompros) under the leadership of Anatolii Lunacharskii until (1929). Lunarcharskii was the Cultural Commissar and his all Ã¢â¬Å"counterrevolutionary newspapers were closed. a State monopoly over newspaper advertising was created. Lenin hoped to restrict the publication of anti-government newspapers by denying them advertising revenue. However, despite this, some 3,000 anti-Bolshevik newspapers continued to be published between November 1917 and June 1918. July-September Ã¢â¬â all independent newspapers were closed down by the Bolsheviks. On 27 May 1919 a state monopoly on paper was created. The state could now control the publication of all books. 6 June 1922 saw the censorship of all publications and pictorial matter was placed under the control of Narkompros. Publications of he Communist Party and its affiliates the Communist International and the Academy of Sciences were exempt. Due to these rules of censorship any semblance of independent thought disappeared from public life in Russian. From 1918 onwards, authors and painters learned to practice the art of self-censorship because they knew that the government censor would be keeping a strict vigilance on the work. Despite this however, Stalin was to in troduce even more severe censorship laws after 1928 to further ensure that the government controlled the mind and the social development of the Ã¢â¬Ëcommunist citizenÃ¢â¬â¢.